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oral

Re: Impact of Oral Presentation

Speaking in front of a group is one of the most common fears among students. You can conquer this fear, or at least manage it, by following some simple tips for oral presentations. These tips will help you inform, not bore, your audience.

1. Make Eye Contact With Your Audience
Humans respond to eye contact; we expect to be able to see when you are excited, when you are making an important point, when you are looking to us for approval, when you are winding up to make a big point.

Go ahead and write your whole speech out so you can read robotically if you blank out, but you should practice your speech so you know it well enough that you can glance up from your notes and look at your audience as you speak.
•Position your visual aids or keyboard so that you never turn your back to your audience.
•Don’t hide behind the computer monitor when you run your PowerPoint presentation.
•Don’t stare down into your notes, either; your audience isn’t down there.

2. Know your Topic
One of the first tips for oral presentations, and the most important, is to become very familiar with your topic. If you have the option of picking your own topic, choose one you are comfortable with and enjoy discussing. This will enhance your presentation. If you do not have the option of choosing a topic, read the material several times and make sure you understand everything you will be saying.

No matter how much time you have to give your presentation, your topic should be well organized. Organize the topic by listing main points, with a few details under each point. This outline should be no longer than a page. Remember, speaking words on a page will take more time because you will be using complete sentences, and you do not want to feel rushed.

To grab your audience’s attention, begin your presentation with a clever introduction. You can capture the audience’s interest with a famous quote or a thought-provoking question. Humor or a personal story is also a way to convince the audience to listen to what you are about to say. The introduction should be clear and compelling, and give a brief overview of the main points of your presentation. Your conclusion should also review the main points and help the audience remember what you said.

3. Use Visual Aids
PowerPoint(Google Docs or Prezi) allows you to design your own slides. These slides should be uncluttered with large fonts, bulleted text, and clear graphics. Dark backgrounds with white text work well because glare is reduced.

If you will be using PowerPoint, bring two copies of the electronic file to class. Load the file on the computer before class if you are allowed to do so. This may prevent technical difficulties, save you time and work, and help you avoid stress before your presentation. If you do experience technical difficulties, be sure to have hard copies of the slides to pass out so that
the class can follow your presentation.

4. Practice, Practice, Practice
If you really want to know one of the best tips for oral presentations, you must practice! Practice by yourself, then in front of family and friends. Give your presentation at a natural, moderate rate of speech. Project your voice and speak clearly. Time yourself and make adjustments when necessary. Practice with your slide show and pause briefly to give your audience time to read each new slide. Do not read the slides aloud. Only glance at your slides or notes and keep your eyes on the audience. Use natural gestures and try not to turn your back to the audience. Maintain eye contact with your audience and do not get distracted by noises or movements. Expect to forget a minor point or two. The key is to practice until you become comfortable giving the presentation without thinking too much about the delivery.

5. One of the Last Tips: Answer Questions
If time allows, answer questions the audience might ask. Before answering a question, listen carefully and wait to respond until you are sure that you understand what is asked. Keep your answers brief and stay on topic. And, if you do not know the answer, just say so. The last question is a good opportunity to summarize your key points or reinforce your main idea.

Oral communication message response

Many problems arise in schools and colleges each day, simply as a result of poor verbal communication.

The ten tips below are designed to help maximise the effectiveness of your verbal communications with colleagues.

Clarity

Be as clear and as specific as possible in all verbal communications and especially when you are asking someone to carry out a task for you.

Summarise

If you are not sure that people understand you, either summarise what you have said in different words, or ask them to summarise your message in their own words.

Observe Responses

Observe response to your message. What people are thinking is not always expressed verbally. Read people’s thoughts by watching their facial expressions, hand and foot gestures. Look at their eyes for signs of confusion, disagreement, disbelief, resistance or understanding.

Background Noise

If there is background noise, speak loudly or move to a quieter area. Reinforce verbal communication, especially in noisy areas, with gestures.

Use of Voice

To keep people’s attention, modulate your voice. Speaking more loudly or softly, more quickly or slowly increases interest in what you say. Pause before and after a key point to allow it to fully register.

Eye Contact

Maintain eye contact with those to whom you are talking. Bear in mind their cultural background. In some cultures, excessive eye contact is a sign of disrespect.

Undivided Attention

Pay attention. Avoid interruptions. Don’t hold two conversations at the same

Time.

Emphasise Important Points

To communicate an important point, raise your voice slightly or speak deliberately. Let your body language reflect the importance of what you are saying by leaning forward, opening your eyes wider, and using appropriate hand gestures.

Positivity

Begin conversations positively. If there is potential for conflict, start off with

something on which you both agree to set a positive atmosphere.

Choose your words

Avoid using ‘but’ to join sentences. ‘But’ puts people on the defensive. Use

‘and’ to join sentences, it is far more positive. And where possible, use ‘I’ messages. Using ‘you’ makes people defensive.

Type of Oral Delivery

Oftentimes at work, people generally use three forms of oral delivery: the scripted talk, the outlined talk, or the impromptu talk. Sometimes the situation or the profile of your listeners will dictate the types of talk you will give. At other times, you will be free to choose.

Scripted: A scripted speech is a word-for-word speech. Everything is written out that the presenter is planning to say. It can either be read or recited from memory. This offers security to the presenter if he/she is nervous or has a lot of specific or complex important information he/she needs to inform the audience about. It is also helpful for keeping within a time limit. Having a scripted talk ensures the presenter that each key point will be talked about, but be careful because this can make the speech rigid and is hard to deliver naturally.

Outlined: An outlined speech is just that, a speech that has been outlined to hit its main points. The outline helps the presenter remember to touch on a certain topic and offers more flexibility to “tune” the speech to the reactions from the audience. With this type of speech the presenter should be knowledgeable on the subject matter. Some may have trouble with phrasing an outlined speech or get tongue-tied. If critical information is not written down the presenter may forget to fully elaborate on key points that are vital to the success of the speech. This type of presentation is ideal when presenting information that is familiar to you.

Impromptu: An impromptu speech is given with little or no preparation. The presenter should be very knowledgeable on the subject matter. It is not uncommon for information delivered to the audience to be disorganized. Impromptu speeches are usually used in short informal meetings where the audience can interrupt and ask questions to help guide the speech and retrieve the information they need from the speaker. Although, depending on how interactive the audience is, without the help of proper questions, the speaker may miss the main point of the speech entirely.

Principles of oral communication

The principles of oral communication are discussed below:

      -Clear pronunciation: Clear pronunciation of message sender in the main factor or oral communication. If it is not clear, the goal of the message may not be achieved.

 

      -Preparation: Before communicating orally the speaker should take preparation both physically are mentally.

 

      -Unity and integration: The unity an integration of the speech of the message sender is a must for successful oral communication.

 

      -Precision: Precision is needed to make oral communication effective. The meaning of the words must be specific.

 

      -Natural voice: The speaker’s must not be fluctuated at the time of oral communication. On the other hand artificial voice must be avoided.

 

      -Planning: Organized plan is a must for effective oral communication. The speaker should take proper plan for delivering speech.

 

      -Simplicity: The speaker should use simple an understandable words in oral communication. It should be easy and simple.

 

      -Legality: The speaker’s speech should be legal and logical at the time of oral communication.

 

      -Avoiding emotions: At the time of oral discussion, excessive emotions can divert a speaker from main subject. So, the speaker should be careful about emotion. The speech must be emotionless.

 

      -Acting: Many people lose concentration after listening for a few minutes. So speech must be emotionless.

 

      -Efficiency: Speakers efficiency and skill is necessary for effective oral communication.

 

    -Vocabulary: Words bear different meanings to different people in different situations. In oral communication, a speaker should use the most familiar words to the receiver of the message to avoid any confusion in the meaning of the words.

Oral Communication

Oral communication describes any type of interaction that makes use of spoken words, and it is a vital, integral part of the business world, especially in an era dubbed the information age. “The ability to communicate effectively through speaking as well as in writing is highly valued, and demanded, in business,” Herta A. Murphy, Herbert W. Hildebrandt, and Jane Thomas wrote in their book Effective Business Communications. “Knowing the content of the functional areas of business is important, but to give life to those ideas—in meetings or in solo presentations—demands an effective oral presentation.” The types of oral communication commonly used within an organization include staff meetings, personal discussions, presentations, telephone discourse, and informal conversation. Oral communication with those outside of the organization might take the form of face-to-face meetings, telephone calls, speeches, teleconferences, or videoconferences.

Conversation management skills are essential for small business owners and managers who often shoulder much of the burden in such areas as client/customer presentations, employee interviews, and conducting meetings. For oral communication to be effective, it should be clear, relevant, tactful in phraseology and tone, concise, and informative. Presentations or conversations that bear these hallmarks can be an invaluable tool in ensuring business health and growth. Unclear, inaccurate, or inconsiderate business communication, on the other hand, can waste valuable time, alienate employees or customers, and destroy goodwill toward management or the overall business.

ORAL PRESENTATIONS

The public presentation is generally recognized as the most important of the various genres of oral business communication. As is true of all kinds of communication, the first step in preparing a public speech or remarks is to determine the essential purpose/goal of the communication. As Hildebrandt, Murphy, and Thomas note, business presentations tend to have one of three general purposes: to persuade, to inform or instruct, or to entertain. Out of the purpose will come the main ideas to be included in the presentation. These ideas should be researched thoroughly and adapted to the needs of the audience.

The ideas should then be organized to include an introduction, a main body or text, and a summary or conclusion. Or, as the old adage about giving speeches goes, “Tell them what you’re going to tell them, tell them, and tell them what you told them.” The introduction should grab the listener’s interest and establish the theme of the remainder of the presentation. The main body should concentrate on points of emphasis. The conclusion should restate the key points and summarize the overarching message that is being conveyed.

Visual aids can be a useful component of some presentations. Whether they are projected from a PC, displayed on chalkboards, dry-erase boards, or flip charts visual aids should be meaningful, creative, and interesting in order to help the speaker get a message across. The key to successful use of visual aids is that they should support the theme of the presentation, aid in its transmittal but do so without detracting by being sloppy, complicated, or even too entertaining.

Once the presentation has been organized and the visual aids have been selected, the speaker should rehearse the presentation out loud and revise as needed to fit time constraints, and to assure thorough coverage of the main points. It may help to practice in front of a mirror or in front of a friend in order to gain confidence. A good oral presentation will include transitional phrases to help listeners move through the material, and will not be overly long or technical. It is also important for the speaker to anticipate questions the audience might have and either include that information in the presentation or be prepared to address them in a Q&A session at the end of the presentation. Professional and gracious presentation is another key to effective communication, whether the setting is a conference, a banquet, a holiday luncheon, or a management retreat. “Recognize that when you speak at a business event, you represent your company and your office in that company,” stated Steve Kaye in IIE Solutions. “Use the event as an opportunity to promote good will. Avoid complaints, criticism, or controversy. These will alienate the audience and destroy your credibility quickly. Instead, talk about what the audience wants to hear. Praise your host, honor the occasion, and compliment the attendees. Radiate success and optimism.”

Oral presentations can be delivered extemporaneously (from an outline or notes); by reading from a manuscript; or from memory. The extemporaneous approach is often touted as a method that allows the speaker to make eye contact and develop a rapport with the audience while simultaneously conveying pertinent information. Reading from a manuscript is more often utilized for longer and/or detailed communications that cover a lot of ground. Memorization, meanwhile, is usually only used for short and/or informal discussions.

The delivery of effective oral presentations requires a speaker to consider his or her vocal pitch, rate, and volume. It is important to incorporate changes in vocal pitch to add emphasis and avoid monotony. It is also helpful to vary the rate of speaking and incorporate pauses to allow the listener to reflect upon specific elements of the overall message. Finding the appropriate volume is crucial to the success of a presentation as well. Finally, speakers should be careful not to add extraneous words or sounds—such as “um,” “you know,” or “okay”—between words or sentences in a presentation.

Nonverbal elements such as posture, gestures, and facial expressions are also important factors in developing good oral communication skills. “Your outward appearance mirrors your inner mood,” Hildebrandt, Murphy, and Thomas confirmed. “Thus good posture suggests poise and confidence; stand neither at rigid attention nor with sloppy casualness draped over the podium, but erect with your weight about equally distributed on each foot.” Some movement may be helpful to hold listeners’ attention or to increase emphasis, but constant shifting or pacing should be avoided. Likewise, hand and arm gestures can be used to point, describe, or emphasize, but they should be varied, carefully timed, and adapted to the audience. Finally, good speakers should make frequent eye contact with the audience, let their facial expression show their interest in the ideas they are presenting, and dress in a way that is appropriate for the occasion.

Small business owners reflect the general population in that their enthusiasm for public speaking varies considerably for individual to individual. Some entrepreneurs enjoy the limelight and thrive in settings that call for public presentations (formal or informal). Others are less adept at public speaking and avoid being placed in such situations. But business consultants urge entrepreneurs to treat public presentations and oral communication skills as a potentially invaluable tool in business growth. “You may consider hiring a presentation coach or attending a workshop on business presentations,” counseled Kaye. “These services can show you how to maximize your impact while speaking. In fact, learning such skills serves as a long-term investment in your future as an effective leader.”

Oral Communication

Oral communication is transfer of information from sender to receiver by means of verbal and visual aid. Examples of oral communication include presentations, speeches, discussions, etc.

Though the message is conveyed through words, most of the times oral communication is effectively carried out with the help of non-verbal communication like body language and tone modulations. Oral communication is also at times mixed with visual aid to help establish the conveyed message in a clear manner.

Examples include usage of presentations in a seminar or meeting to put across the message in a clear manner. Oral communication can also be mixed with written communication methods to ensure that maximum effectiveness is achieved.

There are many benefits of oral communication. This form of communication is a quick and direct method of communication. Be it a criticism or praise or information, it helps to convey the message immediately to the receiver. This method of communication enables in obtaining immediate feedback and hence is a form in which two-way communication can be enabled.

The other main advantage of this communication method is that it helps in conveying the message with the desired pitch and tone that is needed for the message. It also saves on time in a huge way and saves enormously on effort that is spent. Oral communication is a less formal method as compared to others and hence adds a personal touch to your message. Combined with the right kind of verbal communication, oral forms can create confidence and loyalty on the sender from the receiver’s side.

There are many ways to create an effective oral communication. It is important to ensure that the words are framed properly and are delivered in the right pitch and tone. Clarity, brevity and precision are mandatory features of an effective oral communication system. It is advisable to avoid complicated sentences and jargons so as to make sure that the message is conveyed across properly. It is important to establish an eye contact and to modulate body language based on the message. For example, a strict order can be conveyed better when communicated with a formal and stern body language as opposed to a casual and friendly one.

Though it has many advantages, oral communication has its set of limitations also. This form of communication can be misinterpreted or misunderstood very easily. Communicating effectively through oral forms require high skills and is not something that everyone can master. It is also not a form of communication that can be used as a form of documentary evidence.

Oral Contributions to Tutorials and Seminars

The following criteria are applied when assessing general oral contributions to classes:

      -Coherence: clear and audible speech; development of argument in clear steps; consideration of possible counter-arguments.

 

      -Relevance: focus on the points at issue, avoiding wandering from the subject at hand; use of pertinent examples.

 

      -Conciseness: making points with appropriate brevity.

 

      -Awareness of others: a good oral contributor does not dominate proceedings, but contributes to the generation of discussion between the various members of the class.

 

      -Maintenance of interest: enthusiasm for subject; appropriate level of detail; engagement with other members of the class.

 

      -Answering questions: understanding the question and answering directly.

 

      -Raising questions: seeing issues raised by discussion; clarity of formulation of questions; relating them to statements made by other members of class.

 

      -Awareness of historical issues: consideration of relationship with key themes of course; capacity to show how specific topic fits in with wider historical area.

 

      -Awareness of historiographical issues: mastery of secondary literature; awareness of any relevant debates; contextualisation of any original ideas being put forward.

 

      -Relating to other relevant topics: issues of comparison, including those beyond the focus of the course.

 

    -Accuracy: factual accuracy.

Assessing oral presentations in classes

The following criteria are applied when assessing oral presentations in classes:

      -Delivery: clarity and audibility; variety of tone; engagement with audience.

 

      -Coherence of presentation and argument: concise and informative introduction and conclusion; clear sign-posting of what is being said; ensuring that listeners have sufficient background; logical order to sections and development of argument in clear steps; consideration of possible counter-arguments; appropriate balance of argument and information; good time-keeping.

 

      -Handouts and visual aids: a clearly produced handout, summarising key points; use of other appropriate handouts, e.g., of documents, and other visual aids, e.g. slides, or use of powerpoint, where appropriate.

 

      -Interest and learning value: enthusiasm for subject; stimulation of ideas; appropriate level of detail; increasing knowledge and understanding of the field of the presentation.

 

      -Accuracy and choice of information: factual accuracy; appropriateness of examples; use of unusual examples; capacity to argue from examples.

 

      -Awareness of historical issues and any historiographical issues: capacity to show how specific topic fits in with wider historical area; consideration of relationship with key themes of the course; issues of comparison, including those beyond the focus of the course; mastery of secondary literature; consideration of any relevant debates; contextualisation of any original ideas being put forward.

 

    -Questions and discussion: presentation pitched at a level and in a way that generates discussion; understanding questions asked by class, rephrasing where necessary; direct answers to questions; conciseness; honesty.